Wednesday, October 31, 2018


Major concepts of a systemic PLC system

The term “professional learning community” is used to describe every imaginable combination of individuals with an interest in education.


Initiating and sustaining the PLC model concept requires hard work. A school staff must focus on learning rather than teaching, work collaboratively on matters related to learning, and hold its members accountable for the kind of results that fuel continual improvement.

The ideal PLC would create structures to promote the powerful, collaborative culture that characterizes a PLC: a systematic process in which teachers work together in teams to analyze and improve their classroom practice, engaging in an ongoing cycle of questions that promote deep team learning. Their collaborative conversations require team members to make goals, strategies, materials, questions, concerns, and results public. These discussions are explicitly structured to improve the classroom practice of teachers—individually and collectively.

The description of my current reality of PLC's on my campus is one of mixed results. We don't have total buy in by all the teachers. There are individuals that participate to the fullest and do a majority of the work while some do nothing and coast through our collaboration Mondays. 

A critical analysis of my ideal PLC and my current reality is one that again has a few doing most of the work and the majority cruising waiting for the clock to hit 3:00 so they can go home. Good does come out of the PLC's however because those few that do collaborate get a lot of quality work done. The idea of many minds working together on a common goal will create the best situation does work. The misalignment is that not all teachers buy into or make the investment to be a part of the solution but would rather complain and carry on about their own business.

Monday, July 8, 2013

Thoughts on diversity in PE

Diversity in and of itself is a very broad topic. Diversity in PE can be cultural, gender, abilities, or attitudes. For me all of these aspects need to be thought of when you plan your lessons. Today we talked about the pros and cons  single gender classes. Religion plays a big role in the activities or how the activities are performed in class. This gives us a great opportunity to demonstrate tolerance and understanding. The attitude of the PE teacher sets the tone for the entire class. If the PE teacher has great classroom management and uses the different diversity aspects of the class he/she can give life lessons and teach things far beyond the realm of physical education.

How I like blogging

Being that this is my first blog or social media avenue that I've ever used, it's a little different for me. I can see how this can be a very effective tool. I personally don't see myself continuing with the blog after the class. I personally would call someone if I needed a resource or if I needed advice on something. I can't see myself telling someone to check out my blog. I believe I'd look up what ever the question was and then tell them what they needed to know. It has however been very interesting and like I said, I do see how it could be very effective.

Articles on Inclusion, Consultation, and Collaboration

3 Articles on Inclusion
Inclusion in Physical Education: A Review of Literature

 This article stated that data indicated stakeholders philosophically support inclusive PE, but numerous concerns and different opinions exist. The studies suggested that strategies such as peer tutoring and cooperative learning can provide useful support within inclusive PE. The data indicated that inclusion in PE does not affect the learning outcome of students without disabilities when given support,  using paraprofessionals and adapted PE specialists, or when a solid curriculum is used.

  Stories about Physical Education from Young People with Disabilities

 This article focuses on young people with disabilities and mainstream physical education in England. By drawing on interview data from three young people with disabilities, non-fictional narratives were used to re-present their identities at the intersections of schooling, physical education and disability.

The article explains how increasing normalcy in students’ lives, all individuals with disabilities should be educated with their peers without disabilities in environments that are inclusive. Having students be fully included in a general education class is important. In this article it spoke about that educating students with disabilities within the general education classroom signals that those students are members within the classroom and school community, but also are valued members within that community. The process of inclusion requires efforts by the whole school community, and should not rest solely on teachers and service para-educators. School leaders, parents, community members, and other specialist related to the student must be involved in the process. In the end, inclusion works well in inclusive schools and communities where everyone communicates with one another on a daily basis

3 Articles on Consultation

Consultation A Practitioner's Guide to Consultation and Problem Solving in Inclusive Settings

This article explains a 5-Stage Consultation Problem Solving Model. A study was done in Singapore at a secondary school, to see the effects of the model on disruptive behaviors. According to the article, “the process and outcomes of our experience provide useful guidelines for both general and special education teachers interested in employing a problem-solving model to address the needs of students with diverse academic and behavioral needs.” The 5 stages for the Consultation Problem Solving Model are, Relationship Building, Problem Identification, Problem Analysis, Program Implementation and Program Evaluation.

Empowering children with special educational needs to speak up: experiences of inclusive physical education.

This article takes place in England and dives into the fact that the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) has risen up the political agenda since the return of the Labour Government in 1997. It states that there has been increasing numbers of children with SEN being educated within mainstream schools. This study examines the perspectives of children with SEN attending both mainstream and special schools in relation to their experiences of physical education (PE).  Findings demonstrate that children with SEN in both mainstream and special schools enjoy PE, although issues were raised in mainstream schools regarding bullying and the appropriateness of activities in PE lessons. The findings show how children offered suggestions about how to improve PE and make it more beneficial. The findings identify how children are empowered through consultation, and are aware of their needs and abilities

The Consultation Process: Adapted Physical Education Specialists' Perceptions.
The purpose of this article was to examine adapted physical education (APE) specialists' perceptions about consultation as a delivery model for individuals with disabilities. Six APE specialists (4 female, 2 male) from California participated in this phenomenological study. Data came from in-depth individual interviews, field observations, researcher notes, and focus group interactions. Analysis revealed distinct categories related to consultation, competency, training, and consultation model preferences. The use of consultation was more prevalent with middle and high school students. Adapted physical education consultation occurred on a continuum from proximal to distal, dependent on the degree of interaction between the APE specialist, the general education (GE) teacher, and the student. The effectiveness of consultation was dependent upon the GE teacher's attitude and the APE specialist's communication skills and competencies.

 3 Articles on Collaboration
Increasing the Value of Physical Education in Schools and Communities

This article explores the need to improve the status of physical education. It states that physical educators must first continue to promote and implement the curricular and instructional innovations that exist. Second, physical educators should explore ways to develop more community-based support for their programs. Finally, physical educators must work with colleagues from other disciplines to achieve the shared goal of educating students about a healthy lifestyle. This article describes how the Leaders in Academics, Community Engagement and Service programs, have been able to improve the status and value of physical education.

Collaborative Strategies during Transition for Students with Disabilities

This article explains how the task of empowering students with disabilities to remain physically active after graduation is often a struggle for physical educators. One reason for this is that physical educators are often left out of the transition-planning process. It states that in order to be seen as a key member of the special education team, physical educators need to use the same instructional strategies, theories, and models as special educators. The Taxonomy for Transition Programming is a commonly used model in special education that helps individualized education program (IEP) teams to prepare students for life after high school. This article provides examples of how physical education teachers can collaborate in the transition process. Additional strategies for meeting the needs of students with low-incidence disabilities are also included
A Collaboration for Health and Physical Education in High-Need Schools and Communities

. This article is directed primarily to teacher educators interested in improving PE teaching and programs for students in high-need schools, whether they are located in urban centers or in suburban areas. The purpose of this article is to describe why and how one group of PE teacher educators is addressing this need.


Tuesday, July 2, 2013

10 National Resources

National Resources for Adapted Physical Education

1.    PE Links 4 U: Promoting active and healthy lifestyles

The website provides information on a variety of physical activities, health and fitness information, standards, and organization links.


2.    Disabled Sports USA

The purpose of this website is, “providing national leadership and opportunities for individuals with disabilities to develops independence, confidence, and fitness through participation in adaptive sports.”

3.     IFC: Inclusive Fitness Coalition

 IFC wants to create a unified effort to increase access to and participation in physical activity for youth, adults and seniors with physical, cognitive and sensory disabilities.”

4.    AAPAR: American Association for Physical Activity and Recreation, Adapted Physical Education Resource Manual.
The purpose of this manual is to help you find resources related to APE. The areas are broken down into chapters so you can find exactly what you are searching for, whether it’s equipment companies or disability sport organizations. It’s your resource guide from A to Z.


5.    Pacer Center: Champions for Children with Disabilities. Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights

The website gives individuals with disabilities tools to use from birth through adulthood. It also provides parents and family member’s tools to be more involved. There are projects, workshops and other publications that can be helpful tools.


6.    PE Central: The premier web site for Health and Physical Education

The website will help you understand what Adapted physical Education really is. It will give you several physical activities, lesson plans, and assessment ideas that have either been modified or not modified to meet the needs of students.


7.    NCPAD: National Center on Physical Activity and Disability

The website provides information on different types of disabilities and physical activities. It will give you a 14 week program that promotes fitness and the end result is a healthier you.

8.    CEC: Council for Exceptional Children.

           The CEC is an advocate for children with exceptionalities and for special                     

            education policy.  CEC works to improve public policy affecting children and   

            youth with disabilities, gifts and talents, at all levels of government.

9.     NCPERID: National Consortium for Physical Education and Recreation for Individuals with Disabilities

 NCPERID mission is to promote research, professional preparation, service delivery, and advocacy of Physical Education and Recreation for individuals with disabilities.

The mission of APENS is to promote the fifteen Adapted Physical        Education Standards and national certification exam. The goal of APENS is to promote a nationally certified Adapted Physical Educator (CAPE) – the one qualified person who can make meaningful decisions for children with disabilities in physical education – within every school district in the country.



Monday, July 1, 2013

Socio Economic (Diversity Paper)



The overarching theme of our articles was that higher socioeconomic status (SES) equates with improved health habits and awareness, while lower SES reduced access to and appreciation of healthy lifestyle choices. For example, people with socioeconomic advantages were shown to have been less likely to smoke and more likely to exercise and to eat fruits and vegetables daily. Meanwhile, lower SES was associated with less health consciousness, stronger beliefs in the influence of chance on health, less thinking about the future and lower life expectancies.

Some of our studies delved deeper into the underlying causes of this health gap and the corresponding trend of childhood obesity among families of lower socioeconomic classes. According to the researchers, the reasons included “differences in the availability of healthier foods in homes and schools, as well as the availability of safe environments for physical activity.” They point out that minority and low-income children “watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming” and that “ neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhood.”

Other studies showed that African American youth “suffer fatal drowning events at significantly higher rates when compared with white peers.” Incredibly, drowning is the second leading cause of death for adolescent black males and the authors point to racial factors and socioeconomic causes such as a lack of access to public pools and poor parental education.

Access to health information and to health professionals in poor rural areas was also highlighted, especially when it came to serving the needs of at-risk populations and students with disabilities. For example, “only half of health service providers in surveyed low socioeconomic areas of Alabama teach healthy behaviors (diet, exercise, hygiene) and access clinical resources for their patients with disabilities.” And while, nationally, the ratio of children with diabetes to the number of pediatric endocrinologists who treat them was shown to be about 290 to 1, across the more urban affluent Northeast that ratio was reduced to 144 to 1. Not surprisingly, the ratio of youth with diabetes to specialists dropped to between 335 and 370 to one in more rural economically depressed areas.

All of these access and attitudinal factors taken together were, in turn, associated with unhealthy behavioral choices--independent of age, sex, and how people rated their own health. And these findings weren't just confined to the United States. Throughout the world, studies show that a lower health factor and lower life expectations correlate directly to lower SES.

It can be argued then that helping every child access the tools they need to craft a healthy life, regardless of their socioeconomic status, is one of the most pressing issues of our day. After looking at all available research, multiple authors concluded that “winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical environments in which these communities exist.” We would argue that maybe, as physical educators, we have the opportunity to win the fight one child at a time.

Perhaps Nobel Prize-winning poet Gabriela made the best case for the urgency with which all of us must tackle this problem:

“Many of the things we need can wait. The child cannot.

Right now is the time his bones are being formed,

his blood is being made, and his senses are being developed. To him we cannot answer ‘Tomorrow.’

His name is ‘Today.”


1. Socio-economic inequalities in physical activity practice among Italian children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

2. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences

3. Children, Youth and Families& Socioeconomic Status

4. Socioeconomic differences in attitudes and beliefs about healthy lifestyles

6. Perceptions of Health and Disability among Service Providers in Alabama

7. Minority Youth Swimming: Barriers Affecting Participation and Ability

8. Socioeconomic factors in the development of childhood obesity and diabetes

9. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

10. Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations

11. Geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States